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Undertaking involvement

There are a number of levels of involvement and many different ways to involve people.

The ‘ladder of involvement’, is based on work originally undertaken in 1969 by Sherry R Arnstein. This helps to understand the different levels of power and stages at which people are involved in making decisions. Involvement at every stage is important.

At the top of the ladder, co-production is seen as the pinnacle of involvement, where power is shared with service users, carers and the public in the decision-making process. Moving down the ladder, the level of influence in relation to the decision-making process reduces.

When involving people, it is likely that a range of approaches will be used to reach out and involve those who will be affected. For example, a change in a service may be co-produced with a small number of service users and carers but engagement with wider groups will take place via consultations or involving people to help to develop information or communication about the change to the service.

Check out a range of involvement levels below.


Engage and consult
Inform and educate

Check out the key steps to getting started which will help you develop an involvement plan to clearly outline why you are involving and how you will undertake this work. The range of involvement tools will help you determine how to involve people and may be accessed here.